Department of Oncology

Department of Oncology

Cancer is a condition where cells in a specific part of the body grow and reproduce uncontrollably. The cancerous cells can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue, including organs.

Cancer sometimes begins in one part of the body before spreading to other areas. This process is known as metastasis.

More than one in three people will develop some form of cancer during their lifetime. In the India, the four most common types of cancer are:

  1. breast cancer
  2. lung cancer
  3. prostate cancer
  4. bowel cancer

There are more than 200 different types of cancer, and each is diagnosed and treated in a particular way.

Spotting signs of cancer

Changes to your body's normal processes or unusual, unexplained symptoms can sometimes be an early sign of cancer. Symptoms that need to be checked by a doctor include:

  1. a lump that suddenly appears on your body
  2. unexplained bleeding
  3. changes to your bowel habits
But in many cases your symptoms won't be related to cancer and will be caused by other, non-cancerous health conditions.

Cancer treatment

Surgery is the first treatment to try for most types of cancer, as solid tumours can usually be surgically removed. Two other commonly used treatment methods are:

  1. chemotherapy – powerful cancer-killing medication
  2. radiotherapy – the controlled use of high-energy X-rays