Vascular surgery is a surgical subspecialty in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries and veins, are managed by medical therapy, minimally-invasive catheter procedures, and surgical reconstruction. The specialty evolved from general and cardiac surgery as well as minimally invasive techniques pioneered by interventional radiology. The vascular surgeon is trained in the diagnosis and management of diseases affecting all parts of the vascular system except those of the heart and brain.
Cardiothoracic surgeons and interventional cardiologists manage disease of vessels of the heart. Neurosurgeons and interventional neuroradiologists manage surgical disease of the vessels in the brain.
Ears: The unique domain of Otolarynrhinogologists is the treatment of ear disorders. They are trained in both the medical and surgical treatment of hearing, ear infections, discharging ear, perforation of ear drum, balance disorders ear noise (tinnitus), nerve pain, and facial and cranial nerve disorders. Otolarynrhinogologists also manage congenital (birth) disorders of the outer and innerear.
Nose:Care of the Nasal Cavity and sinuses is one of the primary skills of Otolaryngologists. Management of the nasal area includes allergies and managing the nasal blockage. Deviated nasal septum causing nasal blockage and diseases of the sinuses including chronic sinusitis, allergic fungal sinusitis and Sino nasal polyps and their management are also part of expertise.
Throat:Communicating (speech and singing) and eating a meal all involve this vital area. Also specific to Otolaryngologists is expertise in managing diseases of the larynx (voice box) and the upper aero-digestive tract or esophagus, including voice disorders like Hoarseness and stammering etc. and swallowing disorders. Problem relating to snoring and sleep disorders are also a part of spectrum.